Welcome to our Glossary of Woodworking Terms. Feel free to edit and add terminology to this research page. Please follow the general guidelines as outlined below.
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Air dried - Lumber that is cured by air drying.
Arbor - A shaft that is rotated at the axis of a motor, that typically would carry a cutting blade, such as may be found on a table saw.
Architrave - An ornamental moulding around a door or window frame, covering the joint between the frame and plaster.
Arris - A sharp edge between two faces.
Battenboard - A variation of laminboard with the core formed of strips.
Baluster - One of a set of posts supporting a stair handrail.
Balustrade - The protective barrier alongside a staircase or landing.
Banister - See Balustrade.
Batten - A narrow strip of wood.
Beaded wood - A simple round moulding. Also see Moulded wood.
Bench dog - A peg that stands taller than the workbench used as a stop for material movement as it's being worked on.
Bevel - An angle but not a right angle. A sloping or canted surface.
Biscuit joint - A joint formed by making corresponding slots in adjoining pieces and inserting a biscuit (aka plate), a football-shaped compressed piece of wood. Biscuit joiners are machines that make the slots with a circular blade.
Bodging - Bodging is a traditional woodturning craft, using green wood to make chair legs and other cylindrical parts of chairs. The work was done close to where a tree was felled. The itinerant craftsman who made the chair legs was known as a bodger or chair-bodger.
Bodger - 1 "Bodgers" were skilled itinerant wood-turners, who worked in the beech woods on the chalk hills of the Chilterns. They cut and worked timber into roughly cylindrical blanks using hand tools; and then processed these blanks into chair legs, stretchers and rails by turning them on a pole-lathe. These components were then sold on for assembly in the furniture center of High Wycombe; established there because of the proximity of the beech woods.
Bole - The tree trunk is sometimes also called the bole. After felling, the branches are removed, leaving the trunk - at this stage it's known as a log.
Broad-leaved trees - Broad-leaved trees produce hardwood timber. Their seeds are in an enclosed case or ovary, such as an acorn or walnut. In temperate climates they're usually deciduous - they lose their leaves in winter.
Blockboard - A variation of laminboard with a core formed of square wood strips glued together.
Blush - White areas in a finish, usually lacquer or shellac, that happens when moisture is in the finish. This can be the result of applying the finish in humid environment or exposure to moisture in a cured finish. The latter is often the result of wet glasses or wet cloths on a finish.
Box joint - A corner joint made by interlocking fingers. AKA finger joint, bee-hive joint.
Burn in - See types below:
- A type of touch up repair where a resin stick is melted with a tool and then added to fill a dent or scratch. Sometimes called a shellac stick, lacquer stick or beaumontage.
- The property of a finish to partially dissolve or soften a lower layer and bond as a single layer.
Casing - The timber lining of a door opening.
Carving - See types below
- Caricature -
- Chip - Chip carving or chip-carving, kerbschnitt in German, is a style of carving in which knives or chisels are used to remove small chips of the material from a flat surface in a single piece. The style became important in Migration Period metalwork, mainly animal style jewellery, where the faceted surfaces created caught the light to give a glinting appearance. This was very probably a transfer to metalworking of a technique already used in woodcarving, but no wooden examples have survived. Famous Anglo-Saxon examples include the jewellery from Sutton Hoo and the Tassilo Chalice, though the style originated in mainland Europe. In later British and Irish metalwork, the same style was imitated using casting, which is often called imitation chip-carving, or sometimes just chip carving (authors are not always careful to distinguish the two), a term also sometimes applied to pottery decorated in a similar way. 2
- Chainsaw -
- Relief -
- Whittling -
Cellular wood panel - Similar to blockboard and battenboard panels but the battens and laths form the core and are spaced either parallel or in lattice form. Panels are relatively light but have some strength.
Chamfered - The edges have been removed lengthwise at an angle.
Composites - "Structural timber composites" is the collective name for engineered wood-based materials or components. Those currently available include:
- glued laminated timber or glulam
- laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
- parallel strand lumber (PSL)
- laminated strand lumber (LSL)
Conifer or Softwood - Those classed as softwoods usually have needle-like or scale-like leaves and on all but the junipers, some cedars, yews, and a few others, the “fruit” is a “cone” or ball of woody, overlapping closed scales, beneath each scale of which is enfolded one or more seeds. The “cone” of the junipers and yews is a small berry-like fruit within the pulp of which one or more seeds are enveloped. Because the leaves or “needles” of most of the conifers, except the Baldcypress and larches, remain on the tree for several years, the name “evergreen” is given this group. The botanical name for these plants is Gymnosperm. The softwoods are technically designated as nonporous woods usually having resin canals, which include only the wood of Gymnospermae.
Conversion - The process of cutting logs by sawing them into usable sections of timber, such as beams and planks.
Counterbore - To cut a hole that allows the head of a bolt or screw to sit flush with or lie below the level of a surface.
Countersink - To cut a tapered recess that allows the head of a screw to lie flush with a surface.
Crosscut - Cutting wood perpendicular to the direction of the grain.
Cup - To bend as a result of shrinkage, specifically across the width of a piece of wood.
Dado - 1. A channel cut in the face of a board, perpendicular to the grain. cf. groove 2. The lower part of an interior wall, usually defined with a moulded rail.
Densification - A chemical or physical treatment - layers are bonded together with treatment in excess of that needed to ensure a good bond - to increase hardness and improve mechanical strength or resistance to chemical or electrical agencies.
Density - The mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in kilograms per cubic metre.
Distortion - The change in the shape of a piece of timber or timber-based material brought about by shrinkage as the timber dries. It includes bowing, twisting and cupping.
Domino - A type of loose tenon and corresponding machine made by Festool.
Dovetail - A type of joint. One piece has a splayed shape - like a dove's tail - and fits into the socket or eye of the second piece.
Doweling - Cylindrical piece or length of wood. Also known as rounded wood.
Drip groove - A groove cut or moulded in the underside of a door or window sill to prevent rainwater running back to the wall.
Dry board - See Wet processing.
Dry rot - Decay in lumber/timber by fungal infection, typically in moist, humid, stagnant and poorly ventilated areas.
Dye - A type of colorant that is dissolved in a solvent such as oil, alcohol, or water. Component of some stains and toners. See various types below:
- Concentrate -
- Liquid -
- Powder -
Earlywood - The less dense wood formed during the early stage of a growth season.
Eaves - The edges of a roof that project beyond the walls.
Edge and end spacing - Spacing's between fasteners and the edges and ends of the components that are being joined.
Edge grain - The long grain side of a board, or also the long edge of a board, perpendicular to the end grain. A jointer plane is typically used to join the long grain, or edge grain of a board before gluing the two boards edge to edge in order to make wider board.
End grain - The exposed face of timber produced when it's cut through a plane that's perpendicular to the grain. The end of a board where the open cells of the wood are exposed.
End-jointed - See Finger-jointed.
Engineered wood - Layers of hardwood compressed together.
Extruded particle board - Particle board made using extrusion. This may have holes running internally from end to end.
Face - The show side or exposed side in a woodworking project.
Face edge - In woodworking, the surface planed square to the face side.
Face side - In woodworking, the flat planed surface from which other dimensions and angles are measured.
Fairing stick - Typically a thin piece of wood, or strip, that can bend and flex in order to trace and draw a curve on a surface, usually an arc.
Fascia board - A strip of wood that covers the ends of rafters and to which external guttering is fixed.
Fiberboard - Wood chips bonded together by their own adhesive properties - lignin. Known as hardboard, mediumboard and softboard.
Finger-jointed - Also called end-jointed. Shorter pieces of wood are joined to create a longer piece of wood. The joint looks like interlaced fingers.
Floating Tenon - A separate piece of wood that is inserted into mortises on both sides to form a joint.
Floor board - Material for forming the surface of floors.
Foliage - Leaves.
Frame and Panel - A type of construction of a door or carcase where a flat or raised panel is set into rails and stiles.
Furring battens - Parallel strips of wood fixed to a wall or ceiling to provide a framework for attaching panels.
Glaze- A type of finish colorant added between layers of finish. Generally high in pigment and low in binder. Can be manipulated while wet for various effects.
Glazing - Glass panel
Glulam - Glulam or glued laminated timber is one of a range of structural timber composites. Glulam is made by gluing together strength graded laminates to produce large section structural components that can be straight or curved. Beams are manufactured in stock or bespoke sizes.
Going - The horizontal measurement between the top and bottom risers of a stair or the depth of one stair tread.
Grain - The general direction of wood fibres or the pattern produced on the surface of timber by cutting through the fibres. Also see End grain and Short grain.
Green woodworking - The craft of working with wood that is unseasoned and not dried. Green woodworking is typically conducted with material either straight from a live tree or shortly after the material has been extracted from the tree. Green woodworking generally and famously includes the making of chairs, stools, smaller implements such as spoons and bowls. See "Bodging". The green woodworking community generally uses only hand tools and human powered lathes (pole lathes).
Groove - A long narrow channel along the direction of the grain. cf. Dado. Also see Tongued and Grooved.
Hardboard - See Fiberboard.
Hardwood - Timber produced from broad-leaved trees.
Head - The top horizontal member of a wooden frame.
Head plate - The top horizontal member of a stud partition.
Heartwood - The inner area of a tree trunk or log that - when the tree was growing - had stopped containing living cells and reserve materials, such as starch. The heartwood may be darker in color than the outer sapwood though not all species show a clear difference between the two. The heartwood is often more durable than sapwood.
Hide Glue - A type of glue made from bones, hooves and skins of animals. Often used in veneering and lutherie.
Horns - Extended door or window stiles designed to protect the corners from damage while in storage.
Impact Driver - A power tool used to drive screws, nuts, or other fasteners. It features a hammer-like rotary motion to apply torque.
Impregnation or injection - The injection and impregnation of wood are treatments to preserve the wood and give it durability, to make it fire resistant and protect against shrinkage. The treatment ensures the long-term preservation of poles of coniferous wood. The treatment involves soaking the timber for a long period in open vats of hot liquid in which the poles are left until the liquid cools down. Alternatively, they can be treated in an autoclave through a vacuum or under pressure or the wood can be deeply impregnated - usually with thermosetting plastics or molten metal. Impregnation with thermosetting plastics - for example amino-resins or phenolic resins - is often applied to very thin veneers that are built up into laminated wood but not to solid wood.
Interlocking joint - Interlocking is a way of jointing timber. Each piece is cut to fit against or into another to prevent displacement and to transfer forces. The joint must either be in compression or pinned or keyed after assembly.
Jamb - The vertical side member of a door or window frame.
Janka hardness test - 3 The Janka hardness test measures the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear. It measures the force required to embed an 11.28 mm (.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This method leaves an indentation. A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring.
Jointer - A power tool used to straighten the edge or face of a board.
Kerf - The groove cut by a saw.
Knot - The remains of a branch in timber. A branch sawn off close to the trunk or shed naturally forms a sound or live knot. A broken branch stub that becomes surrounded by new growth produces a loose or dead knot in the timber.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) - LVL is a layered composite of wood veneers and adhesive and can be considered as a veneer based product. It's made up of parallel laminations of veneer, glued and processed together to form a material that's similar to sawn timber. Debarked spruce logs are soaked in hot water. Blocks are cut into a thick veneer and then cut into sheets and lengths. Veneers are dried to a moisture content below 5 per cent. The veneers are ultrasonically graded, with the higher grade placed on the outer faces of the plank. A scarf saw makes long chamfers in both ends of the veneers. Thermosetting phenolic resin glue is spread on the upper side of each sheet - except on the upper faces - and laid up so the grain direction is all the same. The veneers are pressed to spread the glue evenly before entering a hot-press. LVL is very similar to parallel strand lumber.
Laminated wood - Several thin layers of wood and adhesives that are built up to make a single board.
Laminboard - Thick compound board with a core that's usually made up of small strips, glued together at right angles and with a surface of other woods.
Ligneous - Of wood or resembling wood, woody. Examples of ligneous materials other than wood are bagasse, bamboo, cereal straw, and flax or hemp shives.
Lignin - The natural adhesive and bonding properties found in the cellular structure of wood and used for bonding together fibreboard and similar products.
Marquetry - A pattern of inlaid veneers that usually consists of thin pieces of wood or other material - such as base metal, shell or ivory - glued to a wooden backboard for decoration.
Microporous - Used to describe a type of finish that allows timber to dry out while protecting it from rainwater.
Mitre - Two pieces forming an angle, or a joint formed between two pieces of wood by cutting bevels of equal angles at the ends of each piece.
Mediumboard - See Fiberboard.
Mortise - A recess or hole, formed in one piece to receive a projection or tenon on the end of another piece.
Moulded wood - Strips of wood - known as mouldings or beadings - shaped with contours for decoration or ornament.
Movement - The swelling and shrinkage of wood as a result of changing moisture content. Movement in length is always negligible. Movement parallel with the growth rings is greater than at right angles to them. The degree of movement varies between species.
Mullion - A vertical dividing member of a window frame.
Muntin - A central vertical member of a panel door.
Newel - The post at the top or bottom of a staircase that supports the handrail.
Nogging - A short horizontal wooden member between studs.
Nosing - The front edge of a stair tread.
Oriented strand board (OSB) - To make OSB, logs are fed into a lathe-like machine where the bark is removed and the machine chews up the logs completely to produce flakes of wood. These flakes are sifted to eliminate the very tiny particles, then mixed thoroughly with a dust of waxes and heat-triggered resin glues. Layers of the fibres are placed in alternating directions - alternately at right angles - until the desired thickness is achieved. This is placed in a thermal press that activates and compresses the loose materials at the same time, causing the wax covered resin to activate and bond. The panels are trimmed and grade stamped.
Panel Saw - Entry needed
Parallel strand lumber - This is a structural wood product made from softwood veneer that has been sized into long and narrow strips that are then glued into parallel laminations. It's very similar to laminated veneer lumber.
Particle board - Woodchips, sawdust, wood residues and so on that are bound or glued together to form a flat board.
Peeling - See Rotary cut.
Permeability - The ease with which liquids - such as preservatives or flame retardants - can be impregnated into timber. Permeability varies with species, although the sapwood of all species is more permeable than the heartwood. Permeability ratings relate to the heartwood of the species.
Pigment - A type of colorant consisting of particles that are suspended in the host product. Used in some stains, glazes, and toners
Pitch - Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers. Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum, coal tar or plants. Various forms of pitch may also be called tar, bitumen or asphalt. Pitch produced from plants is also known as resin. Some products made from plant resin are also known as rosin.
Pitch was traditionally used to help caulk the seams of wooden sailing vessels (see shipbuilding). Pitch may also be used to waterproof wooden containers and in the making of torches. Petroleum-derived pitch is black in color, hence the adjectival phrase, "pitch-black".4
Plane - A hand tool used to smooth and level a surface
Planed - Smooth surfaced.
Planer - A power tool used to smooth and reduce the thickness of a board.
Planking - Planking is available in various widths and is available with tongue and groove in lengths or as plain square edged planks that simply butt up against one another.
Plywood - To create plywood, the bark is removed from a log and the bare log is placed on a lathe-type machine that peels off thin layers of wood, usually after the wood has been steamed or soaked in hot water. The sheets of wood are sorted according to the number of knot holes, grain imperfections and so on. The best sheets become the outside - face sheet or veneer sheet - of the plywood. These layers are laid down edge to edge with their grain running perpendicular to the panel’s grain, then spliced, taped, stitched or glued together. The rough-edged panel then goes to the trimming area where it's cut to the appropriate size and grade stamped.
Pocket Hole Joint - A type of joint made by drilling a hole at an angle through the face of one piece and screwing through it to another piece. Special jigs are available for drilling the pilot holes and special screws, called pocket hole screws, are available for use.
Pointside - The piece of timber in a joint that receives the point of a nail or screw. The other section is known as the headside.
Preservative treatment - The treatment of timber with chemicals to improve its resistance to attack by biological organisms, such as fungi, insects and marine borers. The chemicals can be brushed or sprayed onto the surface of the timber but treatment is more effective if the chemicals are impregnated into the timber under vacuum and/or pressure in special treatment vessels.
Purlin - A horizontal beam that provides intermediate support for rafters or sheet roofing.
Quarter-sawn - Lumber that is cut with annular rings 60-90 degrees from the face. The result is a straight grain pattern on the face of the board and in some woods like white oak, a lot of "ray fleck" figure from the medullary rays.
Rabbet or Rebated - A channel cut along the edge of a board, either with or across the grain.
Rafter - One of a set of parallel sloping beams that form the main structural element of a roof.
Rail - 1. The horizontal part of a door door or window frame. 2. A horizontal member of a staircase or wall (eg., chair rail, hand rail)
Raised panel - Part of a door or carcase where a panel is set into a rail and stile. The panel is beveled on the edges on one or both faces to fit into grooves. This allows the panel to expand and contract in varying humidity.
Ray - A narrow ribbon of cells that conducts and stores food in a tree. Rays run across the grain of timber.
Reveal - The vertical side of an opening in a wall.
Rift-sawn - Lumber that is cut with annular rings 30-60 degrees from the face. The result is a straight grain pattern on the face of the board.
Ripcut - Cutting wood parallel with the grain.
Riser - The vertical part of a step.
Robertson - Trademark for a type of square drive used on screws and other fasteners.
Rotary cut - The log is mounted in a large lathe and turned against the blade which peels the veneers in long sheets. Also called peeling or slicing.
Rounded wood - See Doweling.
Sanded - Smooth surfaced - smoother than a planed surface.
Sandwich construction - A warm roof construction where the insulation is located above the roof deck but below the weatherproof membrane. May also refer to composite panel products known as sandwich panels where panels are built up from layers of different materials.
Sap - Liquid - mostly water - contained within cells in a tree or timber. Sap is the means by which dissolved food and salts are moved around the tree.
Sapwood - The outer area of a tree trunk or log, which in the growing tree contains living cells and reserve materials such as starch. Sapwood is generally lighter in colour than the inner heartwood, although not all species show a clear difference between the two. The sapwood is more vulnerable to attack by biological organisms but is also usually more permeable than the heartwood - this makes it easier to treat with preservatives.
Sash - A type of window or the opening part of a window.
Screw - A cylindrical metal fastener with a helical thread and head made to accept a driver.
Shake - Wood that's split to reveal its natural texture.
Sheen - The "glossiness" of a finish. The true measure is on a 0-100 reading from a reflectometer with a light at a 60 degree incident angle. Manufacturers will assign various names with a range such as dead flat, flat, eggshell, satin, semi-gloss, gloss, high-gloss.
Shingle - Wood sawn lengthwise that's thicker at one end - the butt - and thinner at the other end - the tip.
Short grain - When the general direction of wood fibers lies across a narrow section of timber.
Sill - The lowest horizontal member of a stud partition or the lowest horizontal member of a door or window frame.
Skirting or skirting board - A moulded base board or plinth to an inside wall. Also called a washboard.
Slicing - See Rotary cut.Slöjd - Sloyd, also known as Educational sloyd, is a system of handicraft-based education started by Uno Cygnaeus
Cygnaeus centred his curriculum on handwork, drawing from Froebel’s idea of introducing such activities as paper folding, weaving, needlework, and work with sand, clay, and colour in the kindergarten; but he extended the concept to include farm work, gardening, metal- and wood-work, and basket weaving, collectively known as veisto, or sloyd, from Swedish slöjd (for “handiwork,” or manual training). As a consequence of Cygnaeus’ efforts, the Finnish government in 1866 made the sloyd system compulsory for boys in all rural schools and for male teachers in training institutions. In 1872 the government extended the system to city schools and established a sloyd school at Naäs to train teachers. A second school, called a Sloyd Seminarium, was started in 1875. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Uno-Cygnaeusin Finland in 1865. The system was further refined and promoted worldwide, and was taught in the United States until the early 20th Century.
Soffit - The underside of a part of a building such as the eaves or archway.
Softboard - See Fiberboard.
Softwood - This is usually obtained from pine, fir, spruce or larch. Most structural timber used in the UK is softwood.
Spandrel - The triangular infill below the outer string of a staircase.
Species - The botanical classification of trees and timber. The Latin species name defines a timber more accurately than its common name as these are sometimes used for more than one species of timber. They may also vary between countries.
Staff bead - The innermost strip of timber holding a sliding sash in a window frame.
Stave - A planed plank - bent to some degree - pared or chamfered at one end at least, with a groove called a "croze" to assist with putting together casks and barrels.
Stile - A vertical side member of a door or window sash.
Stopper - A wood filler which matches the color of the timber.
Strength grade - The strength of timber varies with the species and is also affected by characteristics like knots, slope of grain and splits. Each piece of timber used structurally has to be strength graded, either by visual inspection or by machine. The timber is marked with its grade and other information such as its species, whether the timber was graded wet or dry, the company responsible for the grading and the certification body responsible for overseeing the grading operation.
String - A board that runs from one floor level to another, into which staircase treads and risers are jointed. The one on the open side of a staircase is the outer string, the one against the wall is the wall string.
Structural timber composites - See Composites.
Stud partition - An interior timber-framed dividing wall.
Stud - A vertical member of a timber-framed wall.
Swage - Entry needed
Tenon - The end of a piece of wood that's been reduced in section to fit in a recess or cavity of the same size or a projecting tongue on the end of a piece of wood which fits into a corresponding mortise. (not a tendon)
Toner - A type of finish that has both a film finish and a color in it. Typically sprayed on.
Tongue - A reduction of the thickness of the edge of a board. Also see Tongued and grooved.
Tongued and grooved - Boards with one edge that's grooved and the other that's flanged with a tongue or extended edge. When assembled side by side the tongue fits into the groove.
Touch-sanding - Used on the outer ply merely to deal with irregularities due to patching, plugging or filling.
Transom - A horizontal dividing member of a window frame.
Tread - The horizontal part of a step.
Trunk - The trunk of a tree, sometimes also called the bole. After felling, the branches are removed, leaving the trunk - at this stage known as a log.
V- jointed - Usually tongued and grooved wood with a V-shaped channel in the center of the board.
Veneer - A thin or fine sheet of wood produced by rotary-cutting, peeling or slicing.
Waferboard - Thin wafers of wood that look like small pieces of veneer that are bonded together under heat and pressure with glue, resulting in a solid uniform panel that gives strength and water resistance.
Wall plate - A horizontal timber member placed along the top of a wall to support joists and to spread their load.
Wane - The original rounded surface of a log - with or without bark - on any face or edge of sawn timber.
Waney edge - A natural wavy edge on a plank. It might still be covered by tree bark.
Warp - To bend or twist as a result of dampness or heat.
Wasting - The process of eliminating wood rapidly, as in using an adze to waste the wood quickly.
Wet processing - Hardboard is produced by reducing wood to fibers, which gives the name fiberboard. With wet processing, the fibers are suspended in water, then laid out on a mat to dry. This releases the natural resins which bond the fibers together, instead of an artificial bonding agent - although some wet processed boards have additional bonding agents added to give them certain properties. It's generally possible to tell the difference between dry and wet processed hardboard as dry board is typically smooth on both sides. Wet board has one smooth side and one "mesh" side. The mesh finish is a result of water draining out of the mesh side after pressing. One exception is hardboard for furniture which has usually been sanded. This doesn't have a mesh finished side but there's still a noticeable difference as one side is polished and the other side has a matt finish.
Wood-based board - Wood-based board materials are manufactured from layers, particles or fibers of wood that's glued or compressed together to produce a flat board. The most common examples include plywood, chipboard and various types of fiber building board, including hardboard and MDF.
Wood block - Wood block is flooring made up from small strips or blocks of wood, around three inches wide and nine inches long, arranged in herringbone, basket-weave and other geometric patterns.
Wood planks - Planks in long lengths with widths of four inches or more.
Wood strip - Boards that are narrower and shorter than planks and have up to three strips of wood per board.
X-acto - A series of sharp precise knives and razor style cutting tools used for fine and exacting cuts in wood, veneers, and other work where a fine cut is needed.